Archive - Abstract

Vol.40 No.1 (June, 2009)

  • Original (Japanese)
  • Dynamic Viscoelasticity Change of Rice Noodle in the Process of Refrigeration
  • Yongyu LI, Keitaro SUZUKI, Kenichi OHTSUBO, Kaoru KOHYAMA, Keo INTABON and Takaaki SATAKE
  • In this study, Japanese Yumetoiro was used as materials for rice noodles. The endothermic property (Differential scanning calorimetry) and the dynamic viscoelastic property of rice noodles refrigerated for 0 day, 1 day, 2 days, 4 days are discussed. Results showed that After refrigeration, two endothermic peaks were found, in 43 ℃ and 61 ℃ respectively, and the 0 day's refrigerated rice noodles has just one endothermic peak in 61 ℃. Besides, the Storage moduli (G') and loss moduli (G") of cooked rice noodles which was in the refrigeration for 1 day, 2 days, and 4 days respectively were all much higher than 0 day refrigerated one. It indicated that the refrigerated rice noodle had a harden feeling. The enthalpies for re-gelatinization did not differ significantly among three processes of 1 day, 2 days and 4 days refrigeration. No obvious difference of Storage moduli (G') and loss moduli (G") among three refrigeration rice noodles is discovered.

Keywords: rice noodle, refrigeration, endothermic property, retrogradation


  • Original (English)
  • Study on Pretreating Lignocellulose with Aqueous Ammonia
  • Jing LIU, Yuan LI, Ji LI, Zhenya ZHANG and Norio SUGIURA
  • The object of this study was to optimize the aqueous ammonia pretreatment of rice straw for maximum sugar yields by enzymatic hydrolysis, with respect to ammonia concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, temperature, time, and particle size. The experiment was based on uniform design, the enzymatic digestibility of pretreated rice straw varied from 21.2 % to 74.2 %, and the ratio of delignification varied from 12.2 % to 80.9 % at different experiment conditions according to uniform design. The optimum pretreatment conditions for sugar yields from rice straw were 170 ℃, 23 % ammonia water, and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:25. At this optimum condition, 56 % removal of lignin was obtained and the enzymatic digestibility increased to 87 % with the enzyme loading of 15 FPU/g-glucan. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that the concentration of ammonia had the most significant effect on the sugar yield. The significance of parameters that affected sugar yield was ranked in the following order: CN (Ammonia concentration) > Tm (temperature) > VN (liquid-to-solid ration) > t (Reaction time) > d (Particle size).

Keywords: rice straw, lignocellulose, aqueous ammonia, pretreatment, lignin removal, enzymatic hydrolysis


  • Original (English)
  • Electrochemical Treatment of Waste Brine Water - Degradation of ammonia and control of trihalomethane production -
  • Jingxun CUI, Kumiko MIYOSHI, Motoo UTSUMI, Zhenya ZHANG and Norio SUGIURA
  • Waste brine water which was supplied by Nippoh Chemicals Co. contains more than 200 mg/L of ammonia, which can be removed by electrochemical treatment of the water. During the treatment process, some of the chloride contributes to the degradation of ammonia, and the remaining chloride leads to the production of trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, we investigated the effects of various cathode materials and controlled electrode potentials on ammonia degradation and suppression of THMs production. Stainless steel (SUS), Pt, Cu, a Cu and carbon complex (C/Cu), and carbon (C) were used as cathode materials. The SUS cathode, which was widely used until now, had the highest THMs production rate of 5.4 × 10-4 mg·L-1·C, and the lowest current efficiency of 23.3 %. The C/Cu electrode showed the highest current efficiency (36.9 %), and the THM production rate was as low as 4.3 × 10-4 mg·L-1·C. In addition, the C/Cu electrode was the best for removal of total nitrogen: the removal ratio reached 87.3 % in 47 minutes. The results of this study may provide useful information for ammonia removal from agricultural drainage.

Keywords: electrochemical treatment, waste brine water, ammonia, THMs, cathode


  • Original (English)
  • Nattokinase Extracted from Bacillus Subtilis Fermented Soybean Curd Residue and Wet Corn Distillers' Grain and its Fibrinolytic Activity
  • Ji LI, Xiaoyan Zu, Haitao CHE, Guihua ZHANG, Yingnan YANG, Norio SUGIURA and Zhenya ZHANG
  • To recycle and reuse food wastes, soybean curd residue (SCR) and wet corn distillers' grain (WDG) were used as substrates in Bacillus subtilis fermentation to extract nattokinase (NK). The extract conditions of Natto-NK, as well as the fibrinolytic activity of SCR-NK, WDG-NK and Natto-NK were investigated. It was showed that the highest Natto-NK yield could reach 0.108 g per 150 g Natto (wet), when extract conditions were involved with saline (0.9 %) 375 ml, (NH4)2SO4 30 g and the ratio of 3/4 between ethanol and saline. After fibrin hydrolysis for 4 h, both hydrolyzed areas of SCR-NK and WDG-NK were 49 mm2 in one hole, consistent with that of Natto-NK. Apart from this, as a result calculated according to the dried substrate, the SCR-NK yields (0.415 g / 150 g) were significantly higher than Natto-NK yields (0.270 g / 150 g). Moreover, SCR-NK (1.3 fibrinolytic unit/ml (FU/ml)) showed superior activity compared with that of Natto-NK, although there was no statistics difference. Our results suggested that SCR could be regarded as a promising fermentation source for NK production.

Keywords: SCR, WDG, nattokinase, extraction, fibrinolytic activity


  • Original (English)
  • Propagation and Dispersion of Contaminant Air between Enclosed Forced Ventilated Scale Model Broiler Buildings
  • Atsuo IKEGUCHI and Limi OKUSHIMA
  • Diseases and the hygiene of livestock are major concerns in the animal industry. Pathogens or virus aerosol spread by airflow, and it is therefore essential to understand the dispersion of contaminants and transfer between livestock buildings. The aim of this study was to investigate contaminant invasion from a gas emitting room to other rooms and the contaminant dispersion properties from the emitting building. To achieve these aims, wind tunnel model experiments under non-isothermal, steady state conditions were performed for an enclosed, two layer flat floor broiler house. Ethylene gas was used as a contaminant.
  • The contaminant quantity of the invaded rooms was significantly influenced by the contaminant emitting location and the separation distance between the windward building and the leeward building. When the emitting room was the ground floor in the windward building and the separation distance was 4 × H (ridge height), the quantity of contaminant invading the rooms was the smallest, less than a level of 10-3 to the generated rate. The contaminant could be transferred into the windward building even though the emitting building was the leeward building and the transferred quantity was larger at 10-2 order to the generated rate than that when the emitting building was the windward building. Likewise, the outside contaminant dispersion property was significantly affected by the emitting location and separation distance. The average dispersion intensity below 2 times ridge height was the smallest at 0.095 when the emitting room was the ground floor in the windward building and the separation distance was 4 × H.

Keywords: broiler buildings, contaminant, dispersion, propagation, scale model, ventilation, wind tunnel


  • Original (English)
  • Evaluation of Cooling Performance and Characteristics of Air-Distribution in a Pad and Fan Cooling Greenhouse
  • Rui WANG, Tomoharu YAMAGUCH, Shumei ZHAO and Norihiro HOSHI
  • Many studies have confirmed the cooling efficiency of the pad and fan cooling system, however, few have systematically studied cooling performance at the point of characteristics and air-distribution efficiency. In this study, the field measurement of a large-scale commercial pad and fan greenhouse was carried out. The pad and fan cooling greenhouse was kept in a relative favorable state in such a hot summer, that is, the average inside air temperature at noon was under 28 ℃ and the average evaporative cooling efficiency of pad was 75 %. The distribution of airflow velocity combined with operations of fans was monitored. It can be easily observed that the air velocity was relatively low and the maximal airflow velocity was about 1 m/s. It also can be found the airflow was in an uneven distribution due to the function of cooling system and plant canopy. The distribution of air temperature with the process of time in greenhouse was monitored. The non-uniform characteristic of air temperature distribution was clarified not only in horizontal direction but also in horizontal direction. The temperature rises in horizontal and vertical directions of the greenhouse were 2 to 5 ℃ and 0.8 to 5 ℃, respectively. The latent heat and sensible heat was affected by weather conditions. The total value of latent heat and sensible heat in sunny days approached to 5 MJ/m2 and was greater than that in cloudy day. In addition, in sunny days the latent to sensible heat ratio was over 0.6 and was greater than that in cloudy days.

Keywords: greenhouse, pad and fan, cooling, air temperature, air velocity, distribution


  • Original (English)
  • Development of Automatic Irrigation Systems for Netted Melon Cultivation in Greenhouse Using Fuzzy Controller
  • Kazuhiro NAKANO, Takako AIDA, Digui YANG, Shintaroh OHASHI and Qingyun CHEN
  • The price of netted melon varies with its quality in Japan. It is very difficult to control the soil moisture precisely in various growing stages of melon cultivation, because irrigation management in a greenhouse needs know-how and judgment of practical farmer. Irrigation management has a very important influence on the quality of melon; especially it is more difficult in case of sandy soil.
  • In this study, a Fuzzy decision-making irrigation system, which was developed using the know-how extracted from a practical farmer, was compared with an On-off control system and a conventional manual irrigation by a practical farmer. The experimental crop was netted melon which cultivated in a greenhouse with sandy soil. The irrigation amount was controlled by the target ranges of various stages of netted melon. In the Fuzzy control area, the variation of soil moisture content was predicted by Fuzzy rules based on various climate values, such as solar radiation, soil moisture, inside temperature of greenhouse and atmospheric pressure. In the On-off control area, the only irrigation index was that whether soil moisture was lower than the lowest target range or not. Compared to the Manual irrigation by a farmer, the water-saving coefficients in the Fuzzy control and the On-off control were 48.7 % and 16.5 %, respectively. The qualities of melon cultivated in the Fuzzy control, sugar content and grade of exterior appearances, were almost the same as that of the On-off control or Manual irrigation. As the result, the Fuzzy irrigation system for netted melon cultivation in greenhouse is very valuable, and the multiple farmers can save working hour, labor and irrigation water in the busy summer season.

Keywords: netted melon, irrigation system, fuzzy control, on-off control, water-saving cultivation, greenhouse, soil moisture, grade of fruit, sugar content


Vol.40 No.2 (September, 2009)

  • Original (Japanese)
  • Measurements of the Periodical Heating Load of Commercial Plastic Greenhouses in a Heavy Snowfall Winter
  • Shinsuke FURUNO, Sadanori SASE and Hironori SATO
  • The measurements of heating load and heating degree hour (DH) of several plastic greenhouses in Yamagata were carried out in the heavy snowfall winter from 2005 through 2006. Based on the measured oil consumption and weather data, the results can be summarized as follows:
  • (1) In all measured plastic greenhouses, the heating load was proportional and significant to DH. However, if the greenhouse floor was not covered with plants or weeds, the regression line did not cross the origin and its intercept was minus. This shows that the heating load was decreased by the soil heat flux which was caused by solar radiation. On the other hand, if the floor surface of plastic greenhouse was covered with plants or weeds, the regression line generally crossed the origin. This shows that solar radiation did not reach to floor and there was little soil heat flux.
  • (2) Average heating load coefficient of all measured plastic greenhouses in snowy area was smaller than proposed coefficient (5.0 W m-2-1) based on the measurement in kanto area.
  • In snowy area, if DH was large and measuring time of period was long, average heating load coefficient should be around 4 W m-2-1.

Keywords: average heating load coefficient, degree hour (DH) , heating load, jumping oil price, solar radiation


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Study of Wind Loads on Pipe-framed Greenhouses - Effects of side-wall openings on load effects -
  • Yasushi UEMATSU, Koichi NAKAHARA, Hideki MORIYAMA and Sadanori SASE
  • Wind loads on pipe-framed greenhouses can be reduced by making the sidewalls porous. Wind pressures on the external and internal surfaces of two 1:40 scale models of pipe-framed greenhouses with porous sidewalls are measured simultaneously at many points in a turbulent boundary layer simulating natural winds over typical open-country exposure for various wind directions. Wind speeds at some points inside the greenhouse are also measured. The porosity of the windward and leeward sidewalls is changed over a wide range. The wind loads represented by equivalent static wind force coefficients are evaluated by using the LRC (Load Response Correlation) method, in which the bending moment at the windward column base is taken into account as the most important load effect.
  • The effects of the porosity on the wind loads and responses of the frame as well as on the wind speeds inside the greenhouse are investigated. The results indicate that the porosity of 0.3-0.5 can reduce the maximum bending moment by 15 to 20 percent. In such a case, the wind speed becomes approximately 40 percent of the outside wind speed.
  • Finally, the subjects to be investigated for applying the results of the present study to practical structures are summarized.

Keywords: pipe-framed greenhouse, structural frame, wind load, opening, load reduction, dynamic load effect, wind-tunnel experiment


  • Original (English)
  • Numerical Analysis on Microclimate inside Four Single-Span Naturally Ventilated Greenhouses under Various Wind Speeds and Directions using CFD
  • Digui YANG, Kazuhiro NAKANO, Daisuke TERANO, Haijun YAN, Shintaroh OHASHI and Qingyun CHEN
  • The microclimate inside a group of four single-span greenhouses, with a narrow space between two adjacent greenhouses, was numerically analyzed using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package under different wind conditions. First, three-dimensional simulations were validated through experimental measurements. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and numerical results. Second, simulations were carried out under steady-state conditions. The air exchange rate and temperature distribution under various wind speeds and directions were analyzed based on the numerical results.
  • The results showed: a) with the same outside wind speed and direction, the air exchange rate of the greenhouses was strongly affected by their relative location to the wind direction according to whether they were windward or leeward; b) there was a shelter effect for the air temperature inside greenhouses that were leeward to the wind direction; and c) the buoyancy effect played an important role in the calculation of the air exchange rate of greenhouses when the outside wind speed was lower than 1 m/s, but the air exchange rate had almost a linear relation to the outside wind speed when it was higher than 2 m/s, which meant the buoyancy effect resulting from the temperature difference was negligible.

Keywords: greenhouse, CFD, microclimate, wind direction, wind speed, temperature distribution, air exchange rate


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Characteristics of Hydrogen Fermentation Using Synthetic Organic Wastewater with Low C/N-ratio
  • Yuta OGUCHI, Yutaka KITAMURA, Takashi FUJIEDA and Wei Zhong JIANG
  • Using of organic wastewater with low C/N-ratio, characteristics of hydrogen fermentation were investigated and its applicability to the hydrogen/methane two-stage fermentation was elucidated experimentally. Glucose and peptone were used as substrates of the synthetic wastewater with 4.9 C/N-ratio. The hydrogen yields from 0.41 to 0.44 mol-H2/mol-glucose were not different significantly at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the substrate concentration. The VHPR (Volumetric Hydrogen Production Rate) was maximal of 2.13 L/L-d at 1.5 % of the substrate concentration. However the yield and VHPR were decreased significantly at 2.0 % of the substrate concentration. In the substrates the carbon was almost consumed while the excess nitrogen was not converted to ammonia in the reactors. The experimental growth constants and kinetic parameters showed the higher activity of the hydrogen fermentation and the shorter HRT operation at 2.6 h than the conventional acidogenic fermentation. The two-stage fermentation was concluded to apply to the treatment of organic wastewater with low C/N-ratio without ammonia inhibition.

Keywords: hydrogen/methane two-stage fermentation, biomass waste, low C/N-ratio organic wastewater


Vol.40 No.3 (December, 2009)

  • Original (Japanese)
  • Characteristic of Airflow Resistance of Anti-Insect Screens for Greenhouses in the Southwest Islands, Japan
  • Maro TAMAKI, Sadanori SASE, Atsuo IKEGUCHI, Toru AKACHI and Masahisa ISHII
  • The airflow characteristics of eleven anti-insect screens used in the southwest islands were evaluated by means of a wind tunnel. The thread diameter of anti-insect screens ranged from 0.17 to 0.29 mm, and the porosity ranged from 0.25 to 0.68. Wind tunnel experiments indicated that the pressure loss through the screens was a function of porosity. Specifically, the pressure loss increased when the porosity decreased, even if the pores were approximately the same size. For instance, the pressure loss increased to 1.6 times when the porosity decreased by 18 %. It is recommended to examine the porosity, not the pore size, for the airflow characteristics of the anti-insect screens. The pressure loss through a screen was found to be a quadratic function of its porosity for a constant airflow velocity through the screen. Additionally, an examination of the adaptability of previously reported prediction equations for the pressure loss coefficient showed an error of 20 % or more for three screens.

Keywords: anti-insect screen, greenhouse, porosity, pressure loss coefficient


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Animal Feed Production from Food Waste by Moisture Content Control
  • Yukimasa NOROSE, Kazunori IWABUCHI and Ronaldo B. SALUDES
  • Production of animal feed from food waste by controlled the moisture content were investigated. Simple structural equipment was regularly fed with food wastes from a university cafeteria, junior high school and restaurant in the city. Moisture content was controlled at 40 % w.b. and 20 % w.b. in the term of curing period and feed production period, respectively. Temperature, moisture content and pH were measured. Final material was analyzed nutritional components as swine feed and safety.
  • During experimental period, pH was low and curing period pH was less than 5. In addition, since moisture content was controlled 20 % w.b. the aromatic and good handling condition materials were generated. Nutritional components were at the same level as commercial formula feed and the many recycling feed. As to safety, heavy metals, aflatoxin, and pathogenic microbe were satisfied the standards. Therefore, it was thought that the availableness as recycling feed was high. To control the moisture content at 20 % w.b. can reduce the cost for drying and avoid the risk of thermal denaturation. However, it was necessary for investigation that retention time, early decomposition and removal for oil and fat, and prevention of deterioration because the peroxide value was high.

Keywords: animal feed production, food waste, moisture content


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Comparison of Heating Methods with Heat Pumps for Greenhouse Heating
  • Sadanori SASE, Limi OKUSHIMA, Masahisa ISHII, Tadashi TAKAKURA and Makio HAYASHI
  • Greenhouse heating using heat pumps has become widespread recently due to soaring oil prices. Due to lack of time, some methods of heating have been implemented without any definite technical background. A typical example is the so-called “Eco-mode” system, which collects energy from air inside the greenhouse, and air passed through an evaporator is circulated between the space above the thermal screen and the glass. In the present study, the consumption of electricity for a system in “Eco-mode” was compared with that of a system in “Normal-mode” which utilizes outside air as an energy source. It was found that the consumption of electricity in “Eco-mode” was approximately 40 % larger than that in “Normal-mode”, and an unanticipated large electricity loss occurred when heat lost to the outside decreased. From heat loss calculations, the system in “Normal-mode” had the largest electric energy utilization coefficient, followed by the system that utilized the air between the outside cover and the inside thermal screen. The smallest coefficient was found for the system that utilized inside air, since this system is equivalent to an electric heater. The coefficient for “Eco-mode” was between the last two systems.

Keywords: COP, eco-mode, energy saving ratio, internal heat collection


  • Original (Japanese)
  • External Wind Pressure Coefficients for Designing the Main Wind Force Resisting Systems of Pipe-framed Greenhouses
  • Yasushi UEMATSU, Satoshi TANAKA, Hideki MORIYAMA and Sadanori SASE
  • The present paper proposes the external wind pressure coefficients for designing the main wind force resisting systems of pipe-framed greenhouses widely used in Japan, based on a series of wind tunnel experiments. Simultaneous pressure measurements are made with a 1:40 scale model of the greenhouse in a turbulent boundary layer simulating the natural winds over typical open-country exposure. The distribution of the equivalent static pressure coefficients generating the maximum load effect on the frame are computed by using the LRC (Load Response Correlation) method; the bending moment at the windward column base is taken as the most critical load effect in the analysis. First, a model of the external wind pressure coefficient is provided for the isolated model. Then, the effect of adjacent structures on the pressure distribution is investigated using two or three identical models arranged in parallel. The results indicate that the proposed model of external wind pressure coefficients can be applied reasonably to the plural model cases.

Keywords: pipe-framed greenhouse, closed structure, main wind force resisting system, wind load, dynamic load effect, wind-tunnel experiment, equivalent static load, LRC method, parallel arrangement


Vol.40 No.4 (March, 2010)

  • Original (Japanese)
  • Internal Structure and Performance of Desulfurization Systems by Using Digested Slurry - Studies on designing desulfurization system -
  • Takashi SUZUKI, Shinji HOSHIBA, Hitoshi OGAWA, Hirotoshi TAKAZAKI, Eiryu OKAMOTO, Toru AMANO, Hiroshi YOSHIDA and Shigeru MORITA
  • When biogas is used it is needed to remove hydrogen sulfide economically and efficiently, it is thought that biological desulfurization using microbes in digested slurry is effective. However, detailed examination on the usage of digested slurry has not been reported. The objective of this study is to clarify the most effective arrangement for desulfurization when using digested slurry in small scale experiments.
  • The 0.24 m3 reaction pipe made of PVC was used as an experimental equipment, and carriers were installed inside. Digested slurry was sprayed into the equipment by a nozzle using a pump. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was measured before and after the desulfurization by a densimeter, and the effect was evaluated by desulfurization rate.
  • The system of filling the carrier obtained high desulfurization rate, and improved the effect by combining a spray system. This result suggested that contant efficiency between biogas and digested slurry was raised by using the fine mists generated from spraying digested slurry and it became possible to supply moisture and nutrition on the surface of carriers effectively.

Keywords: desulfurization, biogas, spray, carrier, digested slurry


  • Original (English)
  • Methane Emission from Rice Fields and Rice Grown with Various Organic Fertilizers on Acidic Low Nutrient Soil
  • Chaveevan LEAUNGVUTIVIROJ, Pitayakon LIMTONG, Siangjeaw PIRIYARIN, Kenji TAKENO and Ken SASAKI
  • The effects of organic fertilizer on methane emission and rice growth in the acidic low nutrient soil of Thailand and investigated. Treatment of straw and cow dung with chemical fertilizer further increased methane emission above levels achieved by treatment of conventional compost and green compost (Sesbania rostrata) along with chemical fertilizer or by chemical fertilizer only. The maximum methane emission was 15.2 mg/(m2·h) with the application of straw and chemical fertilizer. During methane emission, development of white roots and growth of rice not suppressed. Biomass above ground and grain yield are positively correlated with high methane emission. In addition, organic matter and soil elements such as phosphorous, potassium and total nitrogen were higher in soil with straw and cow dung treatments demonstrating a positive correlation with high methane emission.

Keywords: methane emission, organic fertilizer, rice growth, grain yield, soil element


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Whole Crop Rice Silage Production at the case in Chiba
  • Tatsuo HISHINUMA, Kazuyoshi SUZUKI and Yutaka GENCHI
  • Whole crop silage (WCRS) production is associated with the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because rice cultivation is a major source of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). However, few studies addressed the GHG emission from WCRS production system and compared enviromental performance to imported hay (IH) production system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the GHG emissions of WCRS production system with different mechanized systems at the cases in Chiba using life cycle assessment method and to compare the GHG emissions with IH production systems.
  • The WCRS production system evaluated were three systems of different harvesting machineries according to the production system at Chiba. Using machineries at three systems were a cutting role baler and self-propelled bale wrapper (CBS), a mower, role baler and self-propelled bale wrapper (MRS) and a mower conditioner, role baler and bale wrapper (MRW). The GHG emissions of IH production system were estimated by the mean of GHG emissions from eight states hay production systems and N2O emission from the U.S. agricultural land. The GHG emissions assessed were: carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and N2O from energy use, chemical use and land use. Two functional units were used to express impact of the WCRS production system: operations of 10 a rice paddy fields and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yield at 10 a rice paddy fields.
  • GHG emissions at CBS and MRW were similar to 720-860 kg-CO2eq/10a. Because harvested area was small at MRS, GHG emissions were 1720-1860 kg-CO2eq/10a. GHG emissions of IH production system were 950-1630 kg-CO2eq, varied according to hay yields, production area, N2O emission from land use and CO2 emission from transportation. Compared with IH production system at mean transportation distance. The GHG emissions at WCRS production system with CBS and MRW were low 330-620 kg-CO2eq/10a. Besides, bacause large impact of GHG emissions at WCRS production system was caused by CH4 from paddy fields and CO2 from machineries production, suitable water control at paddy fields and effective utilization of machineries with adequate land area and intensive machinery use were considered important measures to mitigate GHG emissions from WCRS production systems.

Keywords: forage, whole crop rice silage, import hay, life cycle approach, LCA, Greenhouse gas emissions


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Effect of Biomass Collection-Center Location on Transportation Efficiency (Part 1) - Calculation of Transportation Energy for Rice Straw Collection -
  • Genta KANAI, Kazuhiro TAKEKURA, Hitoshi KATO and Yuichi KOBAYASHI
  • Assuming a bio-ethanol production facility using rice straw, characteristics of field-to-facility transportation were examined through simulation modeling and trial calculations. The conversion rate from straw to ethanol, the quantity of straw collected, and the ratio of the field area to that around the facility all affected the fuel consumption, the number of trucks needed, and other factors.
  • Standard conditions were assumed based on reported data and actual observations: 15 ML/yr ethanol production, 0.3 kL output of ethanol from 1 t of dry straw, 53.6 d/yr working days, 2.7 t truck load capacity, and 0.128 as the ratio of field to the area around the facility. The calculation results revealed that a quantity of 50 kt dry straw necessitated the following: 2.78 L fuel consumption for transportation of 1 t of dry straw, 109.5 trucks, and a 19.1 km collection area radius.
  • The total travel distance was found to be proportional to the quantity of straw to the 1.5 power, but inversely proportional to the ratio of the 0.5 power. Furthermore, the fuel consumption for transportation was found to be proportional to the quantity of straw to the 0.5 power, but inversely proportional to the ratio of field to the 0.5 power.
  • The rate of increase in the necessary number of trucks collecting straw increases with the decrease in the ratio of the field to the area around the facility.

Keywords: biomass, rice straw, transportation, simulation


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Changes of Physical Properties of Japonica Rice Noodles Blended with High Amylase Content Rice
  • Yongyu LI, Xingxiang ZHOU and Takaaki SATAKE
  • In the paper, the physical properties of cooked noodles made from a blend of kirara 397, one kind of Japonica rice used more popularly in Japan as main materials for noodles, and Yumetoiro rice with high amylase content, used as additive in the blend were studies to improve the quality of noodles from kirara 397. The results showed that: firstly, the tensile stress and tensile strain of cooked noodles from the blend were bigger than those of cooked noodles from 100 % Kirara 397, and the loss tangent of cooked noodles from the blend was smaller as well. These meant the cooked noodles from the blend had a stronger gel-network structure than those from pure Kirara 397. Therefore the physical properties of cooked noodles are much improved. Secondly, the rising speed of the Storage moduli (G′) and loss moduli (G″) of cooked noodles from the blend were more easily retrograded. Thirdly, from the point of sensory evalution, the cooking noodles from the blend were better than those from 100 % Kirara 397.

Keywords: rice noodle, blend, physical properties, high amylase content rice


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Estimation of Particle Size Distribution for Milled Products of Rice Husk
  • Yukiharu OGAWA, Rikako UEDA, Akio TAGAWA, Takahiro NODA and Yasuyuki HIDAKA
  • Rice husks with several water contents were milled and sieved for a numerical evaluation of their particle distributions. The distribution for longer milling period shifted to smaller particle size, however changes in the parameter of the approximation to the Rosin-Rammler distribution had no dependence on the period. This was resulted from particular micro structures of the powder under 100 μm were uncrushed and it seemed that an accumulation of the structures affected to the distribution curbs. A new numerical method, which was total of the products of mesh size and weight percentages of the sieved powders in the mesh was applied and evaluated the distribution. Asa result, the changes in distributions for milling periods can be estimated by the numerical values. It was also evaluated that the particle distributions from lower water content material shifted to smaller particle size, if the milling time was constant.

Keywords: biomass refinery, preliminary process, water content, milling period, numerical evaluation