Archive - Abstract

Vol.43 No.1·2 (June, 2012)

  • Original (Japanese)
  • Capability and Design Specification in Desulfurization System of Biogas Plant Using Dairy Manure
  • Takashi SUZUKI, Shinji HOSHIBA, Hitoshi OGAWA, Hirotoshi TAKAZAKI, Eiryu OKAMOTO, Toru AMANO and Shigeru MORITA
  • In order to use biogas effectively, efficient desulfurization system is required. Especially, it is thought that biological desulfurization using microbes in digested slurry (methane fermented slurry) is effective and economical. However, many a detailed examination in the capability and design specification for biological desulfurization using dairy manure have not been reported.
  • The objectives of this study were to clarify the capability of a model equipment by ventilation load test and to consider the design specification of a real scale equipment. Moreover, the real scale equipment was made based on the capability in the model equipment, and verified if whole gas from a practically running biogas plant can be treated.
  • The 0.24 m3 reaction pipe made of PVC was used as an experimental equipment, and carriers were filled inside. The digested slurry was sprayed into the equipment upward by a nozzle using a pump, and was exchanged fresh slurry for ten percent per day so that the influence of desulfurization efficiency might not be caused by repeated use of slurry.
  • When treating at target efficiency with the model equipment, the biogas of 5.0 m3/h at maximum could be supplied. As the result of designing the real scale equipment having 4.0 m3 in volume and supplying whole gas from the real scale biogas plant, it was thought that the target efficiency could be obtained sufficiently if operating by suitable temperature conditions.

Keywords: desulfurization, biogas, load test, carrier, digested slurry


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Effects of Deficit Soil Water and Deficit Vapor-Pressure on Flowering of Meiwa Kumquat Trees
  • Naoto IWASAKI, Hiroyuki HAGIWARA, Naoto YASUDA and Takuo ONO
  • Effects of atmospheric relative humidity during deficit soil water treatment on water stress of the trees and the number of first-flush flowers were investigated in order to establish the production system using first flush flowers in Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle). Ten- and 20-day treatments of water stress about 30 % of soil water content increased first-flush flowers compared with that in non-treated control. However, there was no difference in the number of first-flush flowers between treatment of low atmospheric relative humidity solely and control, while it was increased significantly in combined treatment of water stress and low atmospheric relative humidity. The total number of first- and second-flush flowers in treatment of low atmospheric relative humidity solely was 113.3, which was tended to increase in comparison with that in control. These results suggested that combined treatment of deficit soil water and low atmospheric relative humidity is amplified the effect of water stress in increasing the number of first-flush flowers.

Keywords: kumquat, first flush flower, water stress, soil water, atmospheric relative humidity


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Analysis of the Relationship Between Vertebral Number, Vertebral Gene Type and Carcass Meat Quality in Three-way Cross Hybrid Pigs
  • Gou NOGUCHI, Daisuke AKASAKA, Mariko MIYABE, Satoshi MIKAWA, Naohiko OKUMURA and Naoe KANAYA
  • Several characteristics including the fatty acid composition of body fat, grade of carcass, meat quality and daily gain in weight of pigs with different numbers of vertebrae were compared using 310 three-way cross hybrid pigs. The same characteristics in the genotype classification of recently identified vertebral number-associated genes (vertnin: VRTN) were also compared.
  • The incidence of 20 vertebrae (Type 20) was 11 %, 21 vertebrae (Type 21) 66 % and 22 vertebrae (Type 22) 23 %. The Type 22 carcass was longer, had a smaller eye muscle area and had a higher percentage of loin and belly mass than Type 20 and 21. The analysis of meat toughness revealed Type 22 was tenderer than the other types. Additionally, Type 22 pigs seemed to have a better daily weight gain. Fatty acid composition of backfat was not affected by the number of vertebrae.
  • In this study, we also investigated the relationship between VRTN genotype and number of vertebrae. The wildtype (Wt/Wt) pigs had 20 and 21 vertebrae with an average number of vertebrae of 20.4. Hetero-type (Wt/Q: number-increase allele) pigs had 20, 21 and 22 vertebrae and average number of vertebrae of 21.0. Increase type (Q/Q) pigs had 21 and 22 vertebrae and average number of vertebrae of 21.7. These results suggest that estimation of the number of vertebrae is possible by analyzing the VRTN genotype. The fatty acid composition, grade of the carcass and meat quality in the genotype-classified pigs showed similar results as the vertebral number. Therefore, selection of demanded-pork meat for production may be possible by genotyping the VRTN gene.

Keywords: pig, three-way cross hybrid pigs, numbers of vertebrae, vertnin, carcass, meat quality, fatty acid composition


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Effect of Amino Acid Intake on the Accumulation of Intermuscular Fat in Pork Loin Eye Muscle During the Fattening Period
  • In this study the effects of total digestible nutrients (TDN), protein, fat, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), and amino acid intake on the accumulation of intermuscular fat in the loin eye muscle area were investigated using 432 pigs. The examinations were carried out during the fattening period from about 65 kg to the market weight (about 110 kg). The examination was performed with 5-6 pigs per group and measured daily gain (DG), a feed intake, feed conversion ratio, intermuscular fat, a back fat thickness and hardness of the meat. Feeds examined used 82 different combinations of fattening ingredients. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of intermuscular fat in the loin eye muscle area and the intake of lysine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine and valine. On the other hand, no correlation was observed between the intermuscular fat and intakes of TDN, NFE, crude protein, crude fat, methionine and cystine. When there was lower lysine intake the requirement shown in the Japanese Feeding Standard for Swine (JFSS), the amount of intermuscular fat in the loin eye muscle area became high. On the contrary, the accumulation of fat in this area declined when lysine intake was higher than recommended by J.F.S.S. Therefore, differences in lysine intake showed clear differences in the amount of intermuscular fat, suggesting lysine is the first limiting amino acid and affects fat accumulation most greatly in all amino acids. In addition, a significant correlation was confirmed between lysine intake and DG. Compared to pigs with high lysine intake, pigs with low lysine intake showed about a 20 % decline in DG. Moreover, a significant correlation was confirmed between the amount of intermuscular fat and the shear value of the meat, meat with little intermuscular fat is hard.

Keywords: pig, intermuscular fat, lysine, daily gain, shear value


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Distribution of Application Amounts of Fertilizer Ingredient in Cow Composts on Large Scale Fields in Tokachi District, Hokkaido
  • Taku KATO, Baoming SHEN, Futoshi HAYASHI, Fumihito MIYATAKE, Masanori KOIKE, Tadatoshi SATO and Masayuki TANI
  • This study aimed to clarifying about distribution of application amounts of fertilizer ingredient in cow-wheat straw composts on large scale fields. The experiments carried out at three farmer's fields in Tokachi district, Hokkaido. Cow-wheat straw compost was broadcasted using manure spreader, and compost application rates and amounts of N, P2O5 and K2O of compost per square meter were measured. Variation coefficients of compost application rates were 57.8-63.9 %. Amount of N of compost had difference of 7-21 times. The differences of P2O5 and K2O were 7-22 times and 8-23 times as well as amount of N including compost. From the above results, it was cleared that the very heterogeneous distribution of amounts of fertilizer ingredients in cow-wheat straw compost in a field was shown. Change of amounts of fertilizer ingredient in cow-wheat straw compost was specified to compost application rate. And it was suggested that compost application rate is influenced of water content and C/N ratio of composts. Equalization of amounts of fertilizer ingredient in cow-wheat straw compost is one of the important agricultural technologies to the stabilization of the crop production in cultivation. In order to solve the problem of heterogeneous of compost application rates, it was considered that the valuation basis of the physio-chemical property of compost decides is necessity.

Keywords: compost application accuracy, plant nutrient management practice, cow-wheat straw compost, three fertilizer elements


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Effects of Recycled Compost on N2O Emission Rate During the Early Stage of Composting
  • Fumihito MIYATAKE, Yasuhiro SUZUKI, Masayuki TANI, Taku KATO, Kouki MAEDA, Takeki MAEDA and Kazunori IWABUCHI
  • In order to clarify the effect of recycled compost on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in the early stage of dairy and horse manure composting, N2O emission rate was investigated with a laboratory-scale composting device. N2O emission rate rose remarkably by mixing of compost material with recycled compost before the early stage of composting. Also, the amount of N2O emission increased significantly, increasing by maximum of 26 times at daily manure composting and maximum of 885 times at horse manure composting compared with no mix of recycled compost. High concentration of nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) or nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N) which is a source of N2O generation was observed at mixture of recycled compost, suggesting that the accumulation of NO3--N or NO2--N nitrogen caused the rise of N2O emission rate.

Keywords: composting, recycled compost, N2O emission rate, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen


Vol.43 No.3 (September, 2012)

  • Original (Japanese)
  • Classification of Minced Meats of Beef, Pork, Chicken and the Mixed One Based on Their Chemical Compositions
  • Gou NOGUCHI, Sirinnapa SARANWONG, Tsutomu OKURA and Sumio KAWANO
  • Classification of minced meats of beef, pork, chicken, and the mixed one were studied based in their chemical compositions. The chemical compositions used were moisture, crude fat, crude protein and fatty acid compositions. Moisture, crude fat and crude protein could not be used for the classification of beef, pork and chicken because these chemical composition distributed widely depending on the portions of each meat such as loin, bacon, ham, shank, breast and thigh, and three kind of meats overlapped in each chemical composition. As for the fatty acid compositions measured at each portion of beef, pork and chicken, clear differences could be observed in linoleic acid (C18:2) and stearic acid (C18:0) among the three kinds of meats. Therefore, it seemed that C18:2 and C18:0 could be used for the classification of beef (100 %), pork (100 %) and chicken (100 %). However, beef (100 %) and mixed one (beef 80 % + pork 20 %), and pork (100 %) and mixed one (pork 80 % + chicken 20 %) overlapped in C18:2 and C18:0. Therefore these fatty acids were not enough for the classification. Then partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) using 21 fatty acids and the ratio of C18:2 and C18:0 (C18:2/C18:0) were examined. In the PLS-DA, reference values of 100 % meat (beef 100 %, pork 100 %) and 80 % meat (beef 80 %, pork 80 %) were 100 and 80 scores, respectively. If 92 score was used as a threshold, 80 % meat could be separated completely from 100 % meat. The structure of the PLS-DA model was made clear in this study.

Keywords: beef, pork, chicken, menced meat, chemical composition, fatty acid composition, LPS discriminant analysis, discrimination of meat


  • Original (English)
  • Effect of High-oxygen Packaging Compared with Perforation-mediated Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Qualities of Fresh Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinus edodes)
  • Yanjie LI, Yutaka ISHIKAWA, Hiroaki KITAZAWA and Takaaki SATAKE
  • Fresh shiitake mushrooms are widely cultivated yet have high respiration rate and deteriorate easily, necessitating the development of effective packaging technology for prolonging shelf life. In this study, the change in qualities using high oxygen packaging (HOP), with an initial 100 % O2 concentration, was investigated at 10℃ and 90 %RH and compared to perforation-mediated modified atmosphere packaging (PM-MAP) with 4 (P4), 8 (P8) and 20 (P20) perforations (Diameter = 234 ±26 µm). Gas composition, color, hardness, TSS concentration, mass loss and sensory evaluation were determined during the 8 day's storage. The result showed that P20 had a too high gas transmission rate, and induced the severe quality deterioration, so it did not show any modified effect on shiitake mushrooms. P4 and P8 created the low oxygen and high carbon dioxide atmospheres and effectively maintained shiitake mushrooms quality within 4 days; however, with prolonged storage, severe anaerobic with high ethanol concentration in P4 and obvious browning in P8 were detected. On the other hand, HOP samples maintained a significantly higher L*, hardness and sensory quality than PM-MAP, and showed the potential to maintain the quality of shiitake mushrooms after 8 days' storage.

Keywords: shiitake mushrooms, modified atmosphere packaging, high oxygen, quality


  • Original (English)
  • Development of a µTAS for Evaluating Rice Freshness
  • Xiaoli QIU, Fumihiro SASSA, Daisuke ITOH, Yanjie LI, Hiroaki SUZUKI and Takaaki SATAKE
  • Rice lipids are easily hydrolyed to free fatty acids by lipase during storage, in this study, Micro Total Analysis Systems (µTAS) was developed for detection of fat acidity to evaluate rice freshness. It attained microtitration on a microchip with a main working area of W (11 mm) × L (45 mm). The device was constructed using glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) plates with flow channels, two injection ports, a volume regulation cell (collection of small plugs), and a Φ4.0 mm reaction cell. The small plugs with different volumes are formed by injecting the KOH solution and air to the microchannel simultaneously using microsyringe pumps. As the accumulating of small plugs in the volume regulation cell, large plugs with uniform volume are formed, then, uniform large plug was ejected into the reaction cell and mixed with the extracted rice sample solution, color change of phenolphthalein, which was added into extracted rice solution as a pH indicator, was occurred with the increasing of volume of uniform large plugs. Approximately 2 minutes were required for one detection for the fabricated µTAS.
  • To verify the performance of device, defferent varieties of brown and milled rice grains harvested between 2005 and 2010 were used for freshness evaluation. Moreover, to verify fat acidity using µTAS, a conventional neutralization titration method for evaluation freshness was used. According to the results, a good correlation (R2 = 0.980 - 0.984) was observed between the fat acidity determined using µTAS and that determined by the conventional method for brown and milled rice grains. Therefore, µTAS developed can be used for evaluating rice freshness.

Keywords: rice freshness, titration, fat acidity, µTAS, KOH solution plug


  • Original (Japanese)
  • The Heat Capacities of the Greenhouse Heating Systems with the Heat Pumps in Japan
  • Limi OKUSHIMA, David R.MEARS, Sadanori SASE, Shinsuke FURUNO, Hideki MORIYAMA and Masahisa ISHII
  • Greenhouse heating systems with three types of heat pumps, which are air source-air supply (A-A), water source-air supply (W-A) and water source-water (W-W) types, were considered by the calculations based on the simple heat balance model. Cases considered are for the current 4 typical greenhouses at 4 locations in Japan. From the calculation results, the heat pump sizes for the 100 % heat requirements were 3 to 4 times as the sizes for the 50 % heat requirements. The heat pump size for the 90 % heat requirements were about 2 times. The water source heat pump could reduce by 20 % the heat pump size compared with the air source heat pump. The W-W heat pump could reduce by 50 - 60 % of the required heat pump size compared with the A-A heat pump.
  • The back up heat required with the W-W system was much smaller than that with the W-A system. 50 to 70 % of the back up heat required with the W-A system could be reduced with the W-W system when the pump sizes of the W-A and W-W systems were same.

Keywords: heat pump, water source, air source, greenhouses, heat demands, heat storage water tank, heat exchanger


Vol.43 No.4 (December, 2012)

  • Original (Japanese)
  • The Effect of Energy Saving for Greenhouse Heating in Water Heat Pump System Combining Snow Melting Equipment
  • Shintaroh OHASHI, Kazuhiro NAKANO, Koki TAGUCHI and Shinsuke FURUNO
  • The water heat pump systems by utilizing the existing snow-melting equipment were constructed to reduce heating costs in the snowy region. In addition, the effect of introducing these systems was evaluated by reducing heating costs and CO2 emission. The results are as follows:
  • (1) Groundwater temperature for snow melting is 8.9 ℃ on average without significant variation during the measurement period. The temperature was confirmed to be stable as heat source of water heat pumps.
  • (2) The temperature range in the greenhouse by using the water heat pump systems was controlled to be the same range obtained by using boiler system with a preset temperature of 20 ℃ and a corresponding oil consumption of 47.2 L/d.
  • (3) The results showed that the water heat pump systems could reduce 54.3 % at the maximum of the heating costs during the investigation period, comparing with the boiler system.
  • (4) Water heat pump systems could reduce 12.2 % of the running costs which include running costs for snow melting.
  • (5) The relationship between the benefit of the introduction of the systems and the operating time of snow melting (snow melting operation rate) was analyzed. The results showed that the maximum reducing rate of the running costs was 21.8 % when the COP and the snow melting operation rate were 3.38 and 70 %, respectively.
  • (6) The relationship between the benefit of the introduction of the system and the monthly heating load was analyzed. The results showed that the maximum reducing rate of the running cost was 21.9 % when the heating loads was under 127.0 W per square meters and the snow melting operation rate was 95 %.
  • (7) The influence of the oil price on the benefit of the introduction of the systems was also analyzed. Regardless of the snow melting operation rate, it is found that the running cost in these systems is lower than in boiler system when the oil price is over 64 yen per liter.
  • (8) The results showed that the CO2 emission was reduced by 10.8 % by using present system, comparing with the boiler system.
  • Therefore, the above results show that the water heat pump systems constructed in this study are efficient for the greenhouse heating in the snowy region.

Keywords: water heat pump, snow melting equipment, greenhouse heating, snowy region, natural energy


  • Original (Japanese)
  • Comparison between Operational Performance of a Ground Source Heat Pump System and an Air Source Heat Pump System in Greenhouse Heating in a Cold Area
  • Shinsuke FURUNO, Kei SUGAWARA, Shinji TAKASUGI, Masahiko KATSURAGI, Limi OKUSHIMA and Sadanori SASE
  • In a coldarea (Sakata. Japan), a ground source heat pump system and an air source heat pump system for greenhouse heating were compared. Results obtained were as follows,
  • (1) Air temperature of a greenhouse equipped with the ground source heat pump system was maintained at heating set point (14 ℃). On the other hand, air temperature of a greenhouse with the air source heat pump system could not keep the same set point, and it ranged from 7 to 14 ℃. This suggests that heating capacity of the ground source heat pump system was 67 % higher than the air source heat pump system, which had the same official compressor output as the air source heat pump system.
  • (2) System COP of the ground source heat pump system was stable and its average was 3.89. Using average hourly heat transfer coefficient obtained from the analysis of the ground source heat pump system, system COP of the air source heat pump system was evaluated. And it ranged from 1.8 to 2.5 and its average was 2.14.
  • (3) Compressor electric power consumption of the ground source heat pump system was over 30 % less than the air source heat pump system. Although total electric power consumption of the ground source heat pump system contained not only compressor and condenser fan-coil, but also circulation pump, it was 22 % less than the air source heat pump system.

Keywords: coefficient of performance (COP), cold area, grand the thermal source, heat loss coefficient, heat pump


  • Original (English)
  • Drying Characteristics of Cereal Grains and Quality Preservation of Aromatic Rice by Using Dehumidified Cool Air
  • Vichanpol BUNYAWAT, Toshihiko ATSUMI, Tadashi CHOSA and Seishu TOJO
  • Using highly dehumidified cool air for drying cereal grains while preserving grain quality was investigated, A dehumidified air dryer comprised of an air compressor and a dehumidifier with a Peltier element was used to dry barley and wheat grains under a humid climate condition. In an additional experiment, the qualily preservation of aromatic rice was examined. Results showed that the dryer could produce cool and dry air as comparable or lower humidity than those reported in previous studies. The relative humidity of outlet air (17.2 %,RH) was 57.7 % lower than that of inlet air (74.9 %,RH) at the airflow rate of 5 L/min. The humidity differcnce between the inlet and outlet air decreased roughly in proportion to incrcasing airflow rate of the dryer. The moisture content of barley decreased at the same drying rate in the moisture content ranged from 35 %,d.b. to 15 %,d.b. when the airflow rate was 5 L/min and 20 L/min. The drying rate was slow down in the moisture content below 15 %,d.b. in the airflow rate of 20 L/min compared with the airflow rate of 5 L/min. However, it might not be evident whether there was not much difference in the drying rate when the airflow rate was changed because all dehumidified air condition except airflow rate was not the same in this experlment. The effect of preserving the aroma component AcPy was examined by changing the air temperature condition. The dehumidified air dryer could maintain the AcPy content of aromatic rice at the same level as the initial concentration.

Keywords: dehumidified air dryer, cool dry air, relative humidity, aromatic compound, aromatic rice


  • Original (English)
  • Vacuum Drying Characteristics of Kiwifruit and Analysis of Drying Shrinkage
  • Takahiro ORIKASA, Long WU, Poritosh ROY, Yoshiki MURAMATSU, Toshikazu YANO, Takeo SHIINA and Akio TAGAWA
  • We investigated the vacuum drying characteristics of kiwifruits slices (approximately 10 mm thick). The experiments were conducted in a vacuum chamber with pressures ranging from 1.33 to 2.00 kPa and at five drying temperatures ranging from 30 to 70 ℃. We also investigated shrinkage, which refers to changes in the volume and surface area of the sliced kiwifruit during vacuum drying. The volume ratio was represented as a linear function of the moisture content, and the surface area ration was approximated by a power function of the moisture content based on the relationship between the volume ratio and moisture content. Using the shrinkage data, we modeled the drying characteristics of this fruit. The empirical changes in moisture content agreed well with an exponential model for the first falling-rate period and Page’s model for the second period.

Keywords: vacuum drying, kiwifruit, shrinkage, exponential model, Page’s model, Arrenius-type equation


  • Note (Japanese)
  • Influence of Three-Dimensional Wind Direction and Velocity of Tornados on Failure Mode of Pipe-Framed Greenhouses
  • Hideki MORIYAMA, Limi OKUSHIMA, Sadanori SASE and Masahisa ISHII
  • Numerous pipe-framed greenhouses (referred to as “pipe houses” hereafter) were damaged by tornados in Ibaraki and Tochigi Prefectures on May 6, 2012. We surveyed damaged pipe houses along the tracks of two tornados, and determined the relationship between the modes of failure of pipe houses and wind direction. Light-weight pipe houses do not have sufficient wind resistance to withstand a tornado that is F1 or more on the Fujita scale of tornado intensity. For wind direction perpendicular to the ridge, collapse was such that the windward side walls and eaves were pushed down. This collapse mode resembled that of a Typhoon blowing normal to the ridge. Pipe houses were destroyed by the wind in the horizontal direction in the circumference, rather than by the upward flow near the center of the tornado. The influence of the difference of covering film or structure on the collapse mode was not significant. In many cases, all types of covering films were not blown off in the wind. There was not enough time for the covering film to fail, because the wind velocity increased in an exceedingly short period. Therefore, the covering film transmitted the wind pressure on its surface to the frame of the pipe house causing it to fail. Fore wind parallel to the ridge the pipe house collapsed along the direction of its ridgeline. To avoid this inclination, it is necessary to increase the number of bracing elements and to modify the connections to prevent rotation of the arch pipe and the straight pipe elements crossing at a right angle.

Keywords: pipe-framed greenhouse, tornado, characteristics for damage, cause of damage, field survey