Archive - Abstract

Vol.46 No.1 (March, 2015)

  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Relationship between Aerosol Concentration and Airborne Microbe Concentration in Enclosed Weaning Houses
  • Takanori NAIDE, Atsuo IKEGUCHI, Ryo NAKAKUBO, Mitsuyoshi ISHIDA, Ayako MIYAZAKI, Thoru SUZUKI, Takao SUZUKI and Michihiro TAKAGI
  • Outbreak of animal infectious diseases damages not only animal production but also the entire regional economy. It is necessary to raise the level of biosecurity in animal farms as to produce safe animal products. And it is necessary to reduce microbe concentration in livestock houses as much as possible in order to reduce disease risk. Therefore, the present study was carried out to elucidate the relationship between aerosol concentration and airborne microbe concentration in enclosed weaning pig houses in order to aim to develop estimation method of airborne microbe concentration with aerosol that can be measured in real time as a index. In action, we established the gene quantification analysis of PCV2 and PRRSV, we examine the relation of pathogenic microorganisms concentration and aerosol concentration. As a result, the strong correlation between aerosol concentration and viable airborne microbe concentration was found in the aerosol particle size more than 5.0 μm. And, as for pathogenic microorganism concentration, PCV2 was below the detection limit even in the specimen either during the measurement period. However, PRRSV was detected 0.132 TCID50/m3 from air samples and 0.138 TCID50/m3 from oral fluid in October 3 when aerosol concentration was the highest during measurement period. It was examined that there were some correlation between aerosol concentration and PRRSV concentration.

Keywords: aerosol, PCV2, PRRSV, Real-time PCR, bacteria, enclosed weaning houses, swine, airborne


  • Note (Japanese)
  • Diesel Generator and Nozzle Condition Endurance Tests Using Rapeseed Oil Fuel
  • Genta KANAI, Yukinori SHIBUYA and Hisashi KOWATA
  • We examined the use of rapeseed oil in place of fossil diesel to assess the feasibility of expanding cultivated areas of rapeseed crops in Japan. Our previous report described a test run to 1 500 h with a simply modified diesel generator. That engine test was done for 1 250 h using straight rapeseed oil and 250 h using fossil diesel. Finally, the engine was tested for an additional 1 100 h: 1 000 h using straight rapeseed oil and 100 h using fossil diesel. The maintenance of filters and injection nozzles was conducted intermittently during testing. After 1 555 h running, the engine began to emit white smoke. The fuel consumption increased. The incident resulted from grimed injection nozzles. It recovered after replacement with new nozzles. Upon disassembly of the engine after 2 600 h operation, thick soot was found on the cylinder head, inlet valves, and outlet valves. Checking those valves is recommended for long-term operation. Comparison tests of new nozzles revealed that the Elsbett nozzle showed a better spraying profile than a genuine one. Furthermore, Elsbett nozzles showed better performance than genuine ones during an engine starting test with rapeseed oil. A fuel comparison test for rapeseed oil and fossil diesel was held under griming engine conditions: low-load and low-engine speed. Soot adhering to the nozzle has different shapes according to the fuels, but judging the better one is difficult. The generator consumed more rapeseed oil than fossil diesel hourly because the net calorific value of rapeseed oil is lower than that of fossil diesel. Engine oil analysis revealed that more lubricant constituents were consumed during operation with rapeseed oil, probably because the uneven rotation of the engine increased friction under low-load and low-speed conditions.

Keywords: diesel engine, rapeseed oil, SVO, endurance test, nozzle


Vol.46 No.2 (June, 2015)

  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Accuracy Examination of the Method of Visualizing the Electric Power Consumption by the Field Survey of Two Dairy Farms
  • Eisuke KAWAMURA and Norihiro TAKAYANAGI
  • Although electricity and fuel are necessary for farm operation due to mechanization, there are few reports which investigated the quantity and the pattern of the electric power consumed at the farms. The farmers do not know the amount and tendency of the electricity consumption at their farms because they do not have the equipment to measure the amount of consumed electricity. Then, we showed how to simply grasp the power consumption for every work and for certain periods of time in a day by the “visualization of electric power consumption”. The farmers could know the amount of consumed electricity by writing down the types, numbers, and use frequency of machine operated at the farms. Furthermore, we measured the amount of consumed electricity at farms with the electric power analyzer which could measure the amount of consumed electricity. We investigated two dairy farms in Kanagawa prefecture. By putting the estimated amount of consumed electricity at each dairy farm into the form of diagram in accordance with the “visualization of electric power consumption”, the following matters could be confirmed: (1) the power consumption and use frequency of the machine, (2) the time frame of the maximum power consumption, (3) the estimated maximum power consumption, and (4) the tendency of power consumption on an hourly basis. Based on the comparison of the actual measured values with the estimated values of consumed electricity, the amount of estimated electricity consumption of the bulk cooler became more exact by applying the value of 15 % of its rated output. However, the continuous verification shall be examined.

Keywords: visualization of power consumption, dairy farm, amount of used electricity, power consumption peak, electric power analyzer


  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Estimation of Distribution of Hard and Soft Area inside Food Based on Ultrasound Image Processing for Evaluation of Texture Properties inside Food
  • Osamu SAKATA, Masahiro NIMURA, Yutaka SUZUKI and Takaaki SATAKE
  • Measuring “chewiness” and “over a throat” enables us to evaluate an aspect of taste in an elastic food objectively. Today, some technologies to investigate the hardness and texture of a food physically are practically used. However, there is no effective method to observe distribution of hard and soft area inside an elastic food and a plastic food. Then, we proposed a new method to evaluate and visualize the distribution of hard and soft area inner both an elastic food and a plastic food, which is based on ultrasound image processing. We examined the performance of this method by two experiments: a computer simulation and a phantom experiment.
  • As a result, although there is room for improvement on the proposed, it was shown that this method can visualize the distribution of relatively hard and soft area inside a food as a two dimensional image.

Keywords: elastic food, viscoelasticity, texture, hardness distribution, ultrasound image processing, elastography


Vol.46 No.3 (September, 2015)

  • Technical Papers (Japanese)
  • Study on Drying-Efficiency Improvement of Dry-Air Generator Systems for Finish Drying of Wheat
  • Shigeki INABA, Hideo OGATA, Masaaki MUTOH and Toshihumi YAMAGISI
  • We developed novel dry-air-generator systems for drying wheat from May to June in Saga because the environment is highly humid and atmospheric air cannot be used. The first system generates low-humidity air by utilizing heater power that is saved by controlling a fan in an inverter. In the second system, a part of the airflow reflux is allowed to flow through a pipe for generating low-humidity air. Compared with conventional systems, although our systems have a far lower air volume ratio, they exhibit higher drying speeds. Therefore, they show potential for achieving high energy efficiency. Temperature and humidity measurements under the floor and at the top of the silo confirmed the efficiency of these systems.

Keywords: dry-air generator, heater, inverter, reflux pipe, temperature and humidity measurement


Vol.46 No.4 (December, 2015)

  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Dehydration of Soft Biomass Using Heat Evolved during Composting (Part 1) - Thermogenic properties at various moisture contents, and effects of adding seeding compost on composting dehydration -
  • Mio YOKOE, Yoichiro KOJIMA, Koichi AMAHA, Yoshiyuki ABE, Yuichi KOBAYASHI and Kenichi YAKUSHIDO
  • Soft biomass such as weeds from urban areas and levee slopes harvested with a high-moisture content are not normally suitable for recycling. But if this soft biomass is dehydrated, it can be used as solid fuel. In order to dehydrate and recycle high-moisture soft biomass, we tested a composting dehydration technique currently used to compost animal wastes. In this study, we conducted weed composting experiments using small- and medium-scale composting reactors (volume: 14 L and 431 L). We investigated the effect of moisture content on thermogenic properties in the early stages of composting; we also investigated the effect that adding seeding compost had on composting characteristics such as thermogenic properties and decomposition rate of organic matter. When the moisture content of the weed was less than 30 %w.b., there was very little rise in temperature and the heat production rate of the weed was low. Therefore, it was not possible to dehydrate the weed to a moisture content of less than 30 %w.b.. The rise in weed temperature during composting occurred earlier when seeding compost was added than when it was not added, and then adding seeding compost accelerated the decomposition rate of organic matter. Adding seeding compost is therefore effective in facilitating and accelerating composting dehydration of soft biomass materials.

Keywords: soft biomass, fermentation heat, heat production rate, decomposition of organic matter, seeding compost, composting


  • Research Paper (English)
  • Effective Methodologies for Knowledge and Technology Transfer with Regard to the Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization in Developing Countries
  • Yuichi OHASHI and Takaaki SATAKE
  • JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) Tsukuba International Center has implemented a continuous human resource development scheme of technical cooperation through Farm mechanization training (FMT) courses since 1964. This has formed part of an on-going ODA commitment and is subject to the administrative officials and agricultural engineers from representative for developing countries.
  • This study was undertaken with the aim of supporting future development of the FMT courses. The surveys were conducted for participants after their return to verify the impact of the FMT courses on agricultural mechanization in developing countries. After years of study, it was confirmed that the participants transferred their knowledge and technology, acquired during FMT courses. To elucidate the mechanisms by which knowledge and technology transfers activities in developing countries occurred by participants, the authors considered the information via four transfer types based on farm mechanization promotion levels in developing countries. Moreover, it was found that one important factor generated was the development of an informal network (FMK-net: Farm mechanization knowledge network) between participants and experts in agricultural machinery through transfer activities, The creation of a network between FMK-net and the enterprises, together with FMT, was found to be one of efficient model for overseas expansion, especially for Japanese small and medium sized enterprises. This finding was based on the results of the visiting surveys and actual networking activities between FMK-net and the Enterprises. It is argued that these models can be used to help develop new types of knowledge and technology transfers in agricultural mechanization for developing countries.

Keywords: Farm mechanization training (FMT), knowledge and technology transfer, Farm mechanization knowledge network (FMK-net), business for overseas expansion


  • Technical Papers (Japanese)
  • Performance Evaluation of a Self-inspection Device for Several Grains Introduced into Cooperative Grain Drying Processing Facilities
  • Toru HIJIKATA and Takaaki SATAKE
  • In Japan, most grain related common facilities are built for drying and processing of grain, with pool processing systems. The user is charged the costs based on the ratio of their individual volume of shipment and the total throughput. After the common facility receives the grain, the grain is sampled and dried with a test dryer.
  • The costs are calculated after husking and sorting of the grain, so precision of the self-inspection device influences the cost of the grain processing.
  • In this study, the performance of a self-inspection device newly developed for several kinds of grains was investigated. For paddy, wheat and large soybean, the recovery rate of whole grain from the whole grain pack greater than 97 %. This recovery rate is the ratio of the weight of whole grain in the samples and the weight of samples recovered from the whole grain pack. According to the inspection results, the precision of whole grain ratio and filtering ability of the self-inspection device of this study was almost equal to that of a conventional self-inspection device for one kind of grain. Therefore, the self-inspection device introduced in this study is feasible for actual use in cooperative grain drying processing facilities.

Keywords: cooperative grain drying processing facilities, self-inspection device, pool processing system, whole grain ratio, Newton's efficiency