Archive - Abstract

Vol.50 No.1 (March, 2019)

  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Effect on Water Intake and Milk Production of Supplemental Warmed Water for Dairy Cows in Winter
  • Yoichiro KOJIMA, Hiroki MATSUYAMA, Yoshiyuki ABE, Makoto MIYAJI and Koichi AMAHA
  • This paper describes the impact on water intake and milk yield of supplemental warmed water for dairy cows in winter. Twenty four Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two supplied water treatments: water warmed to 35 ℃ and water of below 10 ℃ as a control. The mass of water intake increased by 9.9 % and milk yield increased by 3.8 % by supplying warmed compared with cold water (p < 0.01) without increasing feed intake or altering milk components. Moreover, cold-water supplement had a water-intake frequency of 2.1 times and a duration of water-intake 2.4 times that for warmed-water (p < 0.01). Therefore, the warm-water supplement increased water intake within a short period and reduced the intake time, and resulted in higher milk yield without increased feed intake.

Keywords: winter, dairy cow, warmed water supplement, water intake, milk yield


  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Wind Load Reduction of Steel Greenhouse with Wing-like Cross Section by Controlling Internal Pressure
  • Namseok KIM, Tomoaki MAZAKI and Yasushi UEMATSU
  • We proposed a steel greenhouse with wing-like cross section in our previous study (2016). The present paper discusses the reduction of load effect (bending moment, in practice) by making openings (slits) in the side walls and thereby controlling the internal pressure.
  • First, we measured external pressures at the location of the openings with a scale model in a turbulent boundary layer. The external pressures were used for simulating the internal pressure. The effects of various parameters on the internal pressure coefficient were made clear. The distributions of external wind pressures in some cross-sections were also measured. Then, we carried out a two-dimensional frame analysis using the time history of wind force coefficients provided by the difference between the external and internal pressure coeffcients. Focus was on the bending moments induced in the frame members as the most important load effect. The effect of the width of slits in the side walls on the bending moments was investigated under various conditions, e.g. frame location and wind direction. Based on the results, an optimum combination of the slit width was derived, which could reduce the maximum bending moment by approximately 20 %, compared with the enclosed type of structure.

Keywords: steel greenhouse, wing-like cross section, wind tunnel experiment, internal pressure simulation, load effect, wind load reduction


  • Research Paper (English)
  • Solid-liquid Separation Process by Using Screw Press to Treat Semi-solid Dairy Manure from Free-barn Cowshed for Anaerobic Digestion and Composting
  • Kenichi FURUHASHI, Akihiro TANAKA and Kazutaka KURODA
  • The semi-solid dairy manure from the loose housing system contents relatively large amount of sawdust as bedding material. In this study, the introduction of solid-liquid separation process by screw press in wet anaerobic digestion treatment system, which can treat the semi-solid manure, was investigated for composting the solid fraction without adding any secondary material and increasing the concentration of organic matter in the liquid fraction to improve fermentation efficiency. The manure was mixed in digested liquid to pump easily to the separator in advance. The water content of the solid fraction decreased with either decreasing total solids in the mixture or increasing back pressure, and was easily achieved under 73.0 %, suitable for composting. EC was decreased by 30 %. The separation efficiency of dry matter from the semi-solid or the slurry manure was at 79.3 % or 58.5 %. This was caused by sawdust almost completely removed. The ratio of easily decomposable organic matter to volatile solids in the liquid fraction was at 79 %, compared with 40 % in the initial manure. Moreover, the concentration of easily decomposable organic matters estimated to be more than twice by repeating mix of the manure in liquid fraction and separation three times.

Keywords: solid-liquid separation, screw press separator, dairy manure, anaerobic digestion, composting, biomass


Vol.50 No.2 (June, 2019)

  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Fate of Escherichia coli in Separated Solids from Anaerobically Digested Dairy Cow Slurry for Use as Bedding
  • Yasuhiro ISHIDA and Keiji TAKAHASHI
  • Solid-liquid separation solids from anaerobically digested dairy cow slurry (hereinafter, separated solids) are used as bedding material, but there are hygienic concerns that such material, being derived from manure, may cause outbreaks of mastitis. In this study, we investigated the hygienic status of separated solids during bedding material preparation and during use as bedding at a dairy farm, using Escherichia coli counts as an indicator. Two days’ worth of separated solids were deposited in a pile. Then, every 2 days, 4 times in total, a new pile of separated solids was redeposited after each existing pile was turned and moved. This resulted in 4 piles, and the fourth pile was then used as bedding. Due to turning, the temperature of the separated solids fluctuated between 45 ℃ and 80 ℃ in the summer and between 40 ℃ and 70 ℃ in the winter; throughout the year, the separated solids had experienced temperatures of 55 ℃ or greater for a total of 100 h by the time of the fourth turning. The E. coli counts in the separated solids immediately after solid-liquid separation were 102 to 103 CFU/g-wet but declined to below the limit of detection in 90 % of the samples prior to placement in stalls. These results indicate that aerobic fermentation of separated solids is effective in eliminating E. coli.
  • Counts of E. coli in the bedding were below the limit of detection prior to placement in stalls, and then increased rapidly to between 102 and 104 CFU/g-wet within 2–3 h after placement, reaching 104 to 105 CFU/g-wet by 22–23 h after placement. In addition, E. coli counts in unused bedding that remained in front of the brisket locator since the start of the investigation increased to 103 to 104 CFU/g-wet at about 12 h after placement in the stalls. These results did not indicate an inhibitory effect of the separated solids bedding after short-term fermentation on the growth of E. coli.
  • The relation between average barn temperature and average E. coli counts in the bedding during use rior to the placement of new bedding in stalls had a high positive correlation (r = 0.918) in the range of 1.6 ℃ to 23.7 ℃. At temperatures of 22.7 ℃ or higher, E. coli counts reached a level estimated to be conducive to the outbreak of mastitis (106 CFU/g-wet or greater).
  • The separated solids bedding was found to have the following characteristics. (1) Moisture at the time of placement in stalls was high, at about 78 %, and because of this, (2) E. coli counts tended to be low when moisture was high; (3) moisture was high and E. coli counts were low when the barn temperature was low; and (4) moisture was low and E. coli counts tended to be high when the barn temperature was high.

Keywords: dairy cow slurry, anaerobic digestion, separated solids, bedding, mastitis, Escherichia coli, average barn temperature, moisture


  • Technical Paper (Japanese)
  • Recovery of Ammonia Generated from Closed-vessel Vertical Composting Facility and Utilization of Recovered Ammonium Solution
  • Yoichiro KOJIMA, Ryoh NAKAKUBO, Hideki MATSUOKA, Takashi KENJO, Tomotaka ASANO and Mitsuyoshi ISHIDA
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of an ammonia (NH3)-recovery device to recover NH3 over a full year from a closed vertical composting facility (CVCF), and the possibility of using the recovered ammonium solution as fertilizer. A 600-L NH3-recovery device filled with phosphoric acid solution was connected to a CVCF belonging to a pig farmer in Fukushima (S Farm, 200 head of mother pigs). There were four periods of 10-day experiments: November 2017 and January, April and July 2018. The concentration of NH3 of exhaust changed from 1833–3222 ppm at the device inlet to 117–149 ppm at the outlet, and average NH3 removal rate was 94.7 %. The recovery solution contained 6.06–6.60 % of nitrogen and 18.6–20.5 % of phosphoric acid. Inclusion of 150 kg of phosphoric acid was sufficient to capture about 30 kg of nitrogen in one batch. The mass of solution increase that consisted of recovered nitrogen and water from dew condensation was relatively small in summer, suggesting the possibility of obtaining high ammonium phosphate concentrations depending on conditions. In addition, no harmful components according to the Fertilizer Regulation Act were detected, and the recovered ammonium solution had the same effect as the control fertilizer on seedling growth. Thus, the recovered ammonium solution can be used alone or as raw material for mixed compost compound-fertilizer.

Keywords: closed-vessel vertical composting facility, exhaust, ammonia recovery, dust, recovered ammonium solution, fertilizer use


  • Note (Japanese)
  • Field Survey of Pipe-Framed Greenhouses Damaged by Typhoon 1821 "Jebi" in Kyoto and Gifu
  • Hideki MORIYAMA, Masahisa ISHII, Ryota TSUCHIYA and Limi OKUSHIMA
  • Typhoon 1821 "Jebi" hit central Japan on September 4th, 2018, caused damages more than 20 billion yen on greenhouses. We surveyed pipe-framed greenhouses damaged by the Typhoon in Kyoto and Gifu prefecture to elucidate behaviors of damaged pipe-framed greenhouses in flat and mesomountainous areas. For wind pressure, the damage causes of pipe-framed greenhouse were positive pressure on windward side, negative pressure by separated flow, positive pressure by re-attachment flow, the change of inner pressure, lee eddy on mesomountainous area, convergence effect by topographic feature and structures around greenhouse, and tornado. For the structure of pipe-framed greenhouse, loss of bearing power of soil, lack of bracing, partial loss of area of arch pipe, and destruction of connecting material made by plastics caused collapse of pipe-framed greenhouse. Further, impacts of typhoon-generated missiles were occurred by strong wind.

Keywords: wind pressure, separated flow, re-attachment, inner pressure, slope gradient, lee eddy, tornado, soil saturation, partial loss of area of pipe, typhoon-generated missile


Vol.50 No.3 (September, 2019)

  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Evaluation of Vibration Characteristics during Domestic Transportation of Strawberries for Export
  • Nobutaka NAKAMURA, Kohei SAKAMOTO, Tomoko KANETA, Masayasu NAGATA and Takeo SHIINA
  • Vibration analysis of the domestic transportation process was conducted on strawberries which was meant for export. Acceleration within a cardboard box on a truck bed during transportation was measured from the produce growing area (Ibaraki pref.) to Yokohama Port (Kanagawa pref.), and the power spectral density (PSD) of acceleration was calculated. Using this PSD data, 3-dimensional vibration tests were conducted, and four types of multi-stacked packages consisting of different combinations of the outer boxes and inner trays were evaluated for physical damage to the fruit along with calculation of Grms (root mean squared value of acceleration) in the outer boxes. The salable rate of fruits after the vibration test differed by package type and stacked position from 7.7 % to 86.7 %. The damage score of fruit and Grms were both higher in the upper layer than in the lower layer. These results show the importance of adequate packaging design for transportation of the fruit to reduce distribution losses. Furthermore, Grms is a beneficial index of the distribution conditions that explains physical damage loss of fresh produce.

Keywords: strawberry, export, truck transport, vibration, damage, Grms


  • Note (Japanese)
  • Development and Application of Self-building Bamboo Structure for a Greenhouse (Part Ⅱ) - Case study on “Improved Kumano Bamboo Greenhouses” built by cooperation with bamboo forest maintenance project in Kishu region, Mie prefecture -
  • Shingo NAGANO, Hirohide KOBAYASHI and Mari MIYAJI
  • Previously, we built self-buildable and low cost greenhouses using bamboo called “Kumano Bamboo Greenhouses (BGHs)” experimentally in Kumano city, Mie prefecture. We reported cost for materials could be lower than steel-pipe house by using bamboo, however construction work needs longer time than that of steel-pipe house. Moreover, Ito et al. (2010) noted cost of procurement for bamboo using materials as unused natural resources was needed. The objective of this study was to decrease time for construction work improving BGH structure and to decrease procurement cost for material bamboo cooperating with administrative organization.
  • Materials costs for both BGH No. 3 and BGH No. 4 were lower than that of BGH No. 2. This is approximately half that of a steel-pipe house. BGH No. 3 and BGH No. 4 could be built in 138.4 and 77.2 hours respectively, time for construction work could decrease by that in BGH No. 2 needed 264 hours. The calculation of structural strength was difficult because of the variability of dryness and degradation of bamboo materials. However, critical damages have not been observed in either BGHs during the 20 months post-construction. In BGH No. 4, horizontal oscillation by side wind was observed.
  • From these results, it is found that material cost included procurement of bamboo for BGHs produced in this study (BGH No. 3 and BGH No. 4) and time for construction work could be decreased than that of BGH No. 2. These BGHs can be self-built at a small-scale, irregular-shaped farmland, so they may be useful for agriculture promotion in mountain villages. Moreover, cooperation with maintenance of bamboo grove could not decrease cost for BGH building but also help to prevent animal damage and conserve the traditional landscape of farming.

Keywords: unused bamboo, small-scale greenhouse, low cost, cooperation with administrative organization


  • Note (Japanese)
  • Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emission from Agricultural Production Based on the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Japan
  • Ryota TSUCHIYA and Limi OKUSHIMA
  • Various measures are taken globally to mitigate the impact of global warming by reducing the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Agriculture is a GHG source with CO2 emissions from fossil fuels consumed in agricultural facilities and machineries, and CH4 emissions from livestock and farmland. In the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Japan, these GHG sources are separately classified into the energy sector and the agriculture sector. Thus, it is not possible to directly discuss the current situation of all agricultural GHG emissions using this inventory. In this research, the detailed emissions of GHG from agriculture in Japan are analyzed using the inventory and other data sources. As a result, paddy fields were found to be the largest source of GHG emissions in Japan. Conversely, consuming fossil fuels in agricultural production is also an important source and accounts for a third of total agricultural emissions. GHG emissions per agricultural management entity are the largest in the livestock industry for total and the agriculture sector, though they are the largest in protected agriculture for the energy sector.

Keywords: greenhouse gas emission, energy in agriculture, inventory, statistical data


Vol.50 No.4 (December, 2019)

  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Effects of Suppressing Acoustic Sound on Mating Behavior of Whiteflies
  • Yasuhiko NISHIJIMA, Koich MIZUTANI, Tadashi EBIHARA, Naoto WAKATSUKI, Kenji KUBOTA and Hiroyuki UGA
  • Whiteflies are major pest damaging important agricultural crops such as tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers and melons. In previous studies, whiteflies have been found to communicate using sounds in mating processes. Furthermore, their communication signal varies depending on species and biotypes. Since hybrid of whiteflies between different species and biotypes remains rare yet, acoustic communication of whiteflies may play an important role in their mating behavior. To clarify the importance of acoustic communication in whiteflies, in this paper, we examined the influence of suppressing acoustic sound on mating behavior by constructing a mechanism that artificially suppressions acoustic sound of whiteflies. The experimental results show that we can efficiently suppress the acoustic sound of whiteflies by putting the agar on a cucumber leaf on which whiteflies colonize. Furthermore, the number of the mating of whiteflies when their sound is suppressed was significantly smaller than that when their sound is not suppressed. The obtained results suggest that the acoustic communication of whiteflies plays a major role in their mating processes.

Keywords: Whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci, Mating behavior, Acoustic communication


  • Research Paper (Japanese)
  • Automatic Detection of Pig Sneeze Using a Small Size Acoustic Features Detectable in a Different Recording Environment
  • Misaki Mito,Takuya Aoki,Takuji Kawagishi,Koichi Mizutani,Keiichi Zempo,Naoto Wakatsuki,Yuka Maeda,Nobuhiro Takemae and Takehiko Saito
  • The number of sneezing increase as swine influenza infection symptom in an early stage. Collecting many sneezing sounds of infected pigs is hard; sneezing classifier used small size acoustic features is necessary. In previous research, F-measure (of classifying accuracy) was about 60% only, moreover, comparative evaluation has not conducted in a different environment and different acoustic features. The purpose of this paper is developing a pig sneezing classifier detectable in a different recording environment on high performance. We recorded a video and acoustic signal in multiple positions for 2 weeks after we infected pigs with swine influenza. In the experiment, we used multiple kinds of influenza virus. From the recorded acoustic signal, we detected 74533 samples of acoustic events automatically under a decided detection level. We assigned labels using with a movie for a part of acoustic events; we collected acoustic events including 144 sneezes. For acoustic events, we extracted a variety of acoustic features, and we evaluated classification performance using a classifier based on Support Vector Machine. As a result, developed classifier's F-measure is 92.8%, and it is very higher than the previous method. In this case, the classifier's acoustic features are Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, a feature explained spectral rising, and frequency change in a low-frequency band. In addition, trained classifier detected 3764 sneezes. Consequently, we developed high-performance sneezing classifier using small size acoustic features for detectable in a different recording environment.

Keywords: swine,acoustic features,sneezing,automatic detection,influenza,Support Vector Machine